Physical Properties of Metals
All properties of metals result from the metallic crystal structure and metallic bonds. In general, metals have high densities that result from the efficient packing of atomic centers in the crystal lattice. Metals are electrically and thermally conductive because of the mobility of the valence electrons in the crystal lattice. The opacity and reflective nature of metals result from the ability of the valence electrons to absorb and emit light. Melting occurs as the metallic bond energy is overcome by the applied heat. Interestingly, the number of valence electrons per atomic center influences the melting point somewhat. As the number of valence electrons increases, the metallic bond develops some covalent character that contributes to higher melting points. This phenomenon occurs for iron (Fe3+) and nickel (Ni2+).
The corrosion properties of metals depend on the ability of atomic centers and electrons to be released in exchange for energy. The amount of energy required depends on the strength of the metallic force, which is related to the freedom of the valence electron, and the energy that the released ion can gain by solvating in solution. For metals such as sodium and potassium, the metallic bond is weaker because the valence electrons are loosely held, and the energy of solvation is high. Thus these metals corrode into water with explosive energy release. For metals such as gold and platinum, the metallic bond is stronger; valence electrons are more tightly held, and solvation energies are relatively low. Thus gold and platinum are far less likely to corrode. The corrosion of metals always involves oxidation and reduction. The released ion is oxidized because the electrons are given up, and the electrons (that cannot exist alone) are gained by some molecules in the solution (that are therefore reduced).
Because the distances between metal atoms in a crystal lattice may be different in the horizontal and vertical directions (see Figure 7-4), properties such as conductivity of electricity and heat, magnetism, and strength may also vary by direction if a single crystal is observed. These directional properties of metals and metalloids have been exploited in the semiconductor industry to fabricate microchips for computers. However, in dentistry, a single crystal is rarely observed. Rather, a collection of randomly oriented crystals, each called a grain, generally make up a dental alloy. In this case, the directional properties are averaged across the material. In general, a fine-grained structure is desirable to encourage alloys with uniform properties in any direction. Nonuniformity of directional properties is termed anisotropy.
Like the physical properties, the mechanical properties of metals are also a result of the metallic crystal structure and metallic bonds. Metals generally have good ductility (ability to be drawn into a wire) and malleability (ability to be hammered into a thin sheet) relative to polymers and ceramics. To a large extent, these properties result from the ability of the atomic centers to slide against each other into new positions within the same crystal lattice. Because the metallic bonds are essentially nondirectional, such sliding is possible.
If the metallic crystals were perfect, calculations have shown that the force required to slide the atoms in the lattice would be hundreds of times greater than experiments indicate. Less force is necessary because the crystals are not perfect; they have flaws called dislocations. Dislocations allow the atomic centers to slide past each other one plane at a time (Figure 7-5). Because movement can occur one plane at a time, the force required is much less than if the forces of all the planes have to be overcome simultaneously. An analogy is moving a large heavy rug by forming a small fold or kink in the rug and pushing the fold from one end of the rug to the other. Dislocations are of several types, but all serve to allow the relatively easy deformation of metals. All methods for increasing the strength of metals act by impeding the movement of dislocations.
Metals fracture when the atomic centers cannot slide past one another freely. For example, this failure can happen when impurities block the flow of dislocations (Figure 7-6). The inability of the dislocation to be moved through the solid results in the lattice rupturing locally. Once this small crack is started, it takes little force to propagate the crack through the lattice. An example illustrates this idea. Consider a plate of steel 15 cm wide and 6 mm thick. Suppose it has a 5-cm crack running into one side. The force required to make the crack run the remaining 10 cm would be about 1800 Newtons (N). Without the aid of the crack, 2.2 million Newtons (MN) would be required if the steel were the best commercial grade available. If the steel were a single, flawless crystal, 44 MN would be necessary! The fracture of metals depends heavily on dislocations and the local rupture of the crystal lattice.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions. It may be described as the sharing of free electrons among a lattice of positively charged ions (cations). Metallic bonding accounts for many physical properties of metals, such as strength, ductility, thermal and electrical resistivity and conductivity, opacity, and luster.
Metallic bonding is not the only type of chemical bonding a metal can exhibit, even as a pure substance. For example, elemental gallium consists of covalently-bound pairs of atoms in both liquid and solid state—these pairs form a crystal lattice with metallic bonding between them. Another example of a metal–metal covalent bond is mercurous ion (Hg2+
As chemistry developed into a science it became clear that metals formed the large majority of the periodic table of the elements and great progress was made in the description of the salts that can be formed in reactions with acids. With the advent of electrochemistry, it became clear that metals generally go into solution as positively charged ions and the oxidation reactions of the metals became well understood in the electrochemical series. A picture emerged of metals as positive ions held together by an ocean of negative electrons.
With the advent of quantum mechanics, this picture was given more formal interpretation in the form of the free electron model and its further extension, the nearly free electron model. In both of these models, the electrons are seen as a gas traveling through the lattice of the solid with an energy that is essentially isotropic in that it depends on the square of the magnitude, not the direction of the momentum vector k. In three-dimensional k-space, the set of points of the highest filled levels (the Fermi surface) should therefore be a sphere. In the nearly free correction of the model, box-like Brillouin zones are added to k-space by the periodic potential experienced from the (ionic) lattice, thus mildly breaking the isotropy.
The advent of X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis made it possible to study the structure of crystalline solids, including metals and their alloys, and the construction of phase diagrams became accessible. Despite all this progress, the nature of intermetallic compounds and alloys largely remained a mystery and their study was often empirical. Chemists generally steered away from anything that did not seem to follow Dalton's laws of multiple proportions and the problem was considered the domain of a different science, metallurgy.
The almost-free electron model was eagerly taken up by some researchers in this field, notably Hume-Rothery, in an attempt to explain why certain intermetallic alloys with certain compositions would form and others would not. Initially his attempts were quite successful. His idea was to add electrons to inflate the spherical Fermi-balloon inside the series of Brillouin-boxes and determine when a certain box would be full. This indeed predicted a fairly large number of observed alloy compositions. Unfortunately, as soon as cyclotron resonance became available and the shape of the balloon could be determined, it was found that the assumption that the balloon was spherical did not hold at all, except perhaps in the case of caesium. This reduced many of the conclusions to examples of how a model can sometimes give a whole series of correct predictions, yet still be wrong.
The free-electron debacle showed researchers that the model assuming that the ions were in a sea of free electrons needed modification, and so a number of quantum mechanical models such as band structure calculations based on molecular orbitals or the density functional theory were developed. In these models, one either departs from the atomic orbitals of neutral atoms that share their electrons or (in the case of density functional theory) departs from the total electron density. The free-electron picture has, nevertheless, remained a dominant one in education.
The electronic band structure model became a major focus not only for the study of metals but even more so for the study of semiconductors. Together with the electronic states, the vibrational states were also shown to form bands. Rudolf Peierls showed that, in the case of a one-dimensional row of metallic atoms, say hydrogen, an instability had to arise that would lead to the breakup of such a chain into individual molecules. This sparked an interest in the general question: When is collective metallic bonding stable and when will a more localized form of bonding take its place? Much research went into the study of clustering of metal atoms.
As powerful as the concept of the band structure proved to be in the description of metallic bonding, it does have a drawback. It remains a one-electron approximation to a multitudinous many-body problem. In other words, the energy states of each electron are described as if all the other electrons simply form a homogeneous background. Researchers like Mott and Hubbard realized that this was perhaps appropriate for strongly delocalized s- and p-electrons but for d-electrons, and even more for f-electrons the interaction with electrons (and atomic displacements) in the local environment may become stronger than the delocalization that leads to broad bands. Thus, the transition from localized unpaired electrons to itinerant ones partaking in metallic bonding became more comprehensible.
The nature of metallic bonding
The combination of two phenomena gives rise to metallic bonding: delocalization of electrons and the availability of a far larger number of delocalized energy states than of delocalized electrons.[clarification needed] The latter could be called electron deficiency.
Graphene is an example of two-dimensional metallic bonding. Its metallic bonds are similar to aromatic bonding in benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, ovalene, and so on.
Metal aromaticity in metal clusters is another example of delocalization, this time often in three-dimensional entities. Metals take the delocalization principle to its extreme and one could say that a crystal of a metal represents a single molecule over which all conduction electrons are delocalized in all three dimensions. This means that inside the metal one can generally not distinguish molecules, so that the metallic bonding is neither intra- nor intermolecular. 'Nonmolecular' would perhaps be a better term. Metallic bonding is mostly non-polar, because even in alloys there is little difference among the electronegativities of the atoms participating in the bonding interaction (and, in pure elemental metals, none at all). Thus, metallic bonding is an extremely delocalized communal form of covalent bonding. In a sense, metallic bonding is not a 'new' type of bonding at all, therefore, and it describes the bonding only as present in a chunk of condensed matter, be it crystalline solid, liquid, or even glass. Metallic vapors by contrast are often atomic (Hg) or at times contain molecules like Na2 held together by a more conventional covalent bond. This is why it is not correct to speak of a single 'metallic bond'.[clarification needed]
The delocalization is most pronounced for s- and p-electrons. For caesium it is so strong that the electrons are virtually free from the caesium atoms to form a gas constrained only by the surface of the metal. For caesium, therefore, the picture of Cs+ ions held together by a negatively charged electron gas is not too inaccurate. For other elements the electrons are less free, in that they still experience the potential of the metal atoms, sometimes quite strongly. They require a more intricate quantum mechanical treatment (e.g., tight binding) in which the atoms are viewed as neutral, much like the carbon atoms in benzene. For d- and especially f-electrons the delocalization is not strong at all and this explains why these electrons are able to continue behaving as unpaired electrons that retain their spin, adding interesting magnetic properties to these metals.
Electron deficiency and mobility
Metal atoms contain few electrons in their valence shells relative to their periods or energy levels. They are electron deficient elements and the communal sharing does not change that. There remain far more available energy states than there are shared electrons. Both requirements for conductivity are therefore fulfilled: strong delocalization and partly filled energy bands. Such electrons can therefore easily change from one energy state into a slightly different one. Thus, not only do they become delocalized, forming a sea of electrons permeating the lattice, but they are also able to migrate through the lattice when an external electrical field is imposed, leading to electrical conductivity. Without the field, there are electrons moving equally in all directions. Under the field, some will adjust their state slightly, adopting a different wave vector. As a consequence, there will be more moving one way than the other and a net current will result.
The freedom of conduction electrons to migrate also give metal atoms, or layers of them, the capacity to slide past each other. Locally, bonds can easily be broken and replaced by new ones after the deformation. This process does not affect the communal metallic bonding very much. This gives rise to metals' typical characteristic phenomena of malleability and ductility. This is particularly true for pure elements. In the presence of dissolved impurities, the defects in the lattice that function as cleavage points may get blocked and the material becomes harder. Gold, for example, is very soft in pure form (24-karat), which is why alloys of 18-karat or lower are preferred in jewelry.
Metals are typically also good conductors of heat, but the conduction electrons only contribute partly to this phenomenon. Collective (i.e., delocalized) vibrations of the atoms known as phonons that travel through the solid as a wave, contribute strongly.
However, the latter also holds for a substance like diamond. It conducts heat quite well but not electricity. The latter is not a consequence of the fact that delocalization is absent in diamond, but simply that carbon is not electron deficient. The electron deficiency is an important point in distinguishing metallic from more conventional covalent bonding. Thus, we should amend the expression given above into: Metallic bonding is an extremely delocalized communal form of electron deficient covalent bonding.
Metallic radius is defined as one-half of the distance between the two adjacent metal ions in the metallic lattice. This radius depends on the nature of the atom as well as its environment—specifically, on the coordination number (CN), which in turn depends on the temperature and applied pressure.
When comparing periodic trends in the size of atoms it is often desirable to apply so-called Goldschmidt correction, which converts the radii to the values the atoms would have if they were 12-coordinated. Since metallic radii are always biggest for the highest coordination number, correction for less dense coordinations involves multiplying by x, where 0 < x < 1. Specifically, for CN = 4, x = 0.88; for CN = 6, x = 0.96, and for CN = 8, x = 0.97. The correction is named after Victor Goldschmidt who obtained the numerical values quoted above.
The radii follow general periodic trends: they decrease across the period due to increase in the effective nuclear charge, which is not offset by the increased number of valence electrons. The radii also increase down the group due to increase in principal quantum number. Between rows 3 and 4, the lanthanide contraction is observed – there is very little increase of the radius down the group due to the presence of poorly shieldingf orbitals.
Strength of the bond
The atoms in metals have a strong attractive force between them. Much energy is required to overcome it. Therefore, metals often have high boiling points, with tungsten (5828 K) being extremely high. A remarkable exception are the elements of the zinc group: Zn, Cd, and Hg. Their electron configuration ends in ...ns2 and this comes to resemble a noble gas configuration like that of helium more and more when going down in the periodic table because the energy distance to the empty np orbitals becomes larger. These metals are therefore relatively volatile, and are avoided in ultra-high vacuum systems.
Otherwise, metallic bonding can be very strong, even in molten metals, such as Gallium. Even though gallium will melt from the heat of one's hand just above room temperature, its boiling point is not far from that of copper. Molten gallium is therefore a very nonvolatile liquid thanks to its strong metallic bonding.
The strong bonding of metals in the liquid form demonstrates that the energy of a metallic bond is not a strong function of the direction of the metallic bond; this lack of bond directionality is a direct consequence of electron delocalization, and is best understood in contrast to the directional bonding of covalent bonds. The energy of a metallic bond is thus mostly a function of the number of electrons which surround the metallic atom, as exemplified by the Embedded atom model. This typically results in metals assuming relatively simple, close-packed crystal structures, such as FCC, BCC, and HCP.
Given high enough cooling rates and appropriate alloy composition, metallic bonding can occur even in glasses with an amorphous structure.
Much biochemistry is mediated by the weak interaction of metal ions and biomolecules. Such interactions and their associated conformational change has been measured using dual polarisation interferometry.
Solubility and compound formation
Metals are insoluble in water or organic solvents unless they undergo a reaction with them. Typically this is an oxidation reaction that robs the metal atoms of their itinerant electrons, destroying the metallic bonding. However metals are often readily soluble in each other while retaining the metallic character of their bonding. Gold, for example, dissolves easily in mercury, even at room temperature. Even in solid metals, the solubility can be extensive. If the structures of the two metals are the same, there can even be complete solid solubility, as in the case of electrum, the alloys of silver and gold. At times, however, two metals will form alloys with different structures than either of the two parents. One could call these materials metal compounds, but, because materials with metallic bonding are typically not molecular, Dalton's law of integral proportions is not valid and often a range of stoichiometric ratios can be achieved. It is better to abandon such concepts as 'pure substance' or 'solute' is such cases and speak of phases instead. The study of such phases has traditionally been more the domain of metallurgy than of chemistry, although the two fields overlap considerably.
Localization and clustering: from bonding to bonds
The metallic bonding in complicated compounds does not necessarily involve all constituent elements equally. It is quite possible to have an element or more that do not partake at all. One could picture the conduction electrons flowing around them like a river around an island or a big rock. It is possible to observe which elements do partake, e.g., by looking at the core levels in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrum. If an element partakes, its peaks tend to be skewed.
Some intermetallic materials e.g. do exhibit metal clusters, reminiscent of molecules and these compounds are more a topic of chemistry than of metallurgy. The formation of the clusters could be seen as a way to 'condense out' (localize) the electron deficient bonding into bonds of a more localized nature. Hydrogen is an extreme example of this form of condensation. At high pressures it is a metal. The core of the planet Jupiter could be said to be held together by a combination of metallic bonding and high pressure induced by gravity. At lower pressures however the bonding becomes entirely localized into a regular covalent bond. The localization is so complete that the (more familiar) H2 gas results. A similar argument holds for an element like boron. Though it is electron deficient compared to carbon, it does not form a metal. Instead it has a number of complicated structures in which icosahedral B12 clusters dominate. Charge density waves are a related phenomenon.
As these phenomena involve the movement of the atoms towards or away from each other, they can be interpreted as the coupling between the electronic and the vibrational states (i.e. the phonons) of the material. A different such electron-phonon interaction is thought to cause a very different result at low temperatures, that of superconductivity. Rather than blocking the mobility of the charge carriers by forming electron pairs in localized bonds, Cooper-pairs are formed that no longer experience any resistance to their mobility.
The presence of an ocean of mobile charge carriers has profound effects on the optical properties of metals. They can only be understood by considering the electrons as a collective rather than considering the states of individual electrons involved in more conventional covalent bonds.
Light consists of a combination of an electrical and a magnetic field. The electrical field is usually able to excite an elastic response from the electrons involved in the metallic bonding. The result is that photons are not able to penetrate very far into the metal and are typically reflected. They bounce off, although some may also be absorbed. This holds equally for all photons of the visible spectrum, which is why metals are often silvery white or grayish with the characteristic specular reflection of metallic luster. The balance between reflection and absorption determines how white or how gray they are, although surface tarnish can obscure such observations. Silver, a very good metal with high conductivity is one of the whitest.
Notable exceptions are reddish copper and yellowish gold. The reason for their color is that there is an upper limit to the frequency of the light that metallic electrons can readily respond to, the plasmon frequency. At the plasmon frequency, the frequency-dependent dielectric function of the free electron gas goes from negative (reflecting) to positive (transmitting); higher frequency photons are not reflected at the surface, and do not contribute to the color of the metal. There are some materials like indium tin oxide (ITO) that are metallic conductors (actually degenerate semiconductors) for which this threshold is in the infrared, which is why they are transparent in the visible, but good mirrors in the IR.
For silver the limiting frequency is in the far UV, but for copper and gold it is closer to the visible. This explains the colors of these two metals. At the surface of a metal resonance effects known as surface plasmons can result. They are collective oscillations of the conduction electrons like a ripple in the electronic ocean. However, even if photons have enough energy they usually do not have enough momentum to set the ripple in motion. Therefore, plasmons are hard to excite on a bulk metal. This is why gold and copper still look like lustrous metals albeit with a dash of color. However, in colloidal gold the metallic bonding is confined to a tiny metallic particle, preventing the oscillation wave of the plasmon from 'running away'. The momentum selection rule is therefore broken, and the plasmon resonance causes an extremely intense absorption in the green with a resulting beautiful purple-red color. Such colors are orders of magnitude more intense than ordinary absorptions seen in dyes and the like that involve individual electrons and their energy states.
- ^Metallic bonding. chemguide.co.uk
- ^Metal structures. chemguide.co.uk
- ^Chemical Bonds. chemguide.co.uk
- ^PHYSICS 133 Lecture Notes Spring, 2004 Marion Campus. physics.ohio-state.edu
- ^If the electrons were truly free, their energy would only depend on the magnitude of their wave vectork, not its direction. That is in k-space, the Fermi level should form a perfect sphere. The shape of the Fermi level can be measured by cyclotron resonance and is never a sphere, not even for caesium, see:
Okumura, K. & Templeton, I. M. (1965). "The Fermi Surface of Caesium". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A. 287 (1408): 89–104. Bibcode:1965RSPSA.287...89O. doi:10.1098/rspa.1965.0170. JSTOR 2415064.
- ^Electron deficiency is a relative term: it means fewer than half of the electrons needed to complete the next noble gas configuration. For example, lithium is electron deficient with respect to neon, but electron-rich with respect to the previous noble gas, helium.
- ^Shriver and Atkins' Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford University Press. 2010. pp. 74–. ISBN 978-0-19-923617-6.
- ^Daw, Murray S.; Foiles, Stephen M.; Baskes, Michael I. (1993). "The embedded-atom method: a review of theory and applications". Materials Science Reports. 9 (7–8): 251–310. doi:10.1016/0920-2307(93)90001-U.
- ^Brewer, Scott H.; Franzen, Stefan (2002). "Indium Tin Oxide Plasma Frequency Dependence on Sheet Resistance and Surface Adlayers Determined by Reflectance FTIR Spectroscopy". The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 106 (50): 12986–12992. doi:10.1021/jp026600x.