Significant revisions in MLA handbook (8th edition) that was published in April 2016. The work's publication format is no longer considered. Citations are created using MLA's list of core elements:
|1. Author.|| Include maximum two authors in the entry (first author's last name, first name and second author's name in direct order; for more than two authors, list the first author's last name, first name, followed by a comma and et al. |
|2. Title of source.||In quotation mark if the source is part of a larger work, but italicized it if the source is self-contained; for example, an article title is placed in quotation mark, but a book title is italicized. This element is required for all sources in the Works Cited List; if there is no official title, provide a description of the source.|
|3. Title of container,||Italicized; title of a periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper), a collection of essays, stories, poems, a website, a television series, a comic book series, etc.,|
|4. Other contributors,||Precede contributors' name with a description of the role such as: adapted by, directed by, edited by, illustrated by, introduction by, narrated by, performance by, translated by, etc.,|
|5. Version,||Editions (e.g., 2nd ed., expanded ed., updated ed., etc.), versions (e.g., unabridged version, director's cut, etc.),|
|6. Number,||Precede volume number with vol. (e.g., vol. 2), issue number with no. (e.g., no. 12), spell out the season number of a television series (e.g.,, season 2, episode 6),|
|7. Publisher,||If the name of a publisher is not indicated on the source cited, but available in another reliable source, cite the name in square brackets (MLA 2.6.1); do not use n.p.,|
|8. Publication date,||If there are more than one publication date, cite the date that is most relevant (for example, when citing an online article, cite only the online publication date if it is different from the print one). If the publication date is not indicated on the source cited, but available in another reliable source, cite the date in square brackets (MLA 2.6.1); do not use n.d.,|
|9. Location.||Page or paragraph numbers, DOIs or URL for online works, disc # for DVD sets, place/city for physical objects, venue/city for live presentations, a code/number for objects in an archive.|
Put the nine core elements together:
Note: Some sources may not include all the elements. if that happens, list only the relevant elements you can find within the source.
If the source is available in more than one container, add elements 3-9 to the end of the entry for each container (see examples in MLA Handbook, pp. 32-36).Optional elements may be included if they are relevant to the source and/or your use of the source; click here for more information or consult pages 50-53 of the MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition.
An annotated bibliography is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks like a Works Cited page but includes an annotation after each source cited. An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source. Annotated bibliographies can be part of a larger research project, or can be a stand-alone report in itself.
Types of Annotations
A summary annotation describes the source by answering the following questions: who wrote the document, what the document discusses, when and where was the document written, why was the document produced, and how was it provided to the public. The focus is on description.
An evaluative annotation includes a summary as listed above but also critically assesses the work for accuracy, relevance, and quality. Evaluative annotations can help you learn about your topic, develop a thesis statement, decide if a specific source will be useful for your assignment, and determine if there is enough valid information available to complete your project. The focus is on description and evaluation.