APA Format–6th Edition
OVERVIEW–The American Psychological Association (APA) style is widely accepted in the social sciences and other fields, such as education, business, and nursing. The APA citation format requires parenthetical citations within the text rather than endnotes or footnotes. Citations in the text provide brief information, usually the name of the author and the date of publication, to lead the reader to the source of information in the reference list at the end of the paper.
NOTE: APA style requires double spacing throughout (e.g. text, references, etc.)
APA RULES FOR THE REFERENCES PAGE – The following sections show some of the more commonly used APA citation rules.
NOTE: All citations must be in the Hanging Indent Format with the first line flush to the left margin and all other lines indented.
JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS IN PRINT FORMAT
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, xx, xxx-xxx.
NOTE: The journal title and the volume number are in italics. Issue numbers are not required if the journal is continuously paged. If paged individually, the issue number is required and is in regular type in parentheses adjacent to the volume number.
Williams, J. H. (2008). Employee engagement: Improving participation in safety. Professional Safety, 53(12),
Two to Seven Authors [List all authors]
Keller, T. E., Cusick, G. R., & Courtney, M. E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: Distinctive
profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81, 453-484.
Eight or More Authors [List the first six authors, … and the last author]
Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J.-Y., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L.,...Griffin, W. A. (2000). An
experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 843-856.
Mathews, J., Berrett, D., & Brillman, D. (2005, May 16). Other winning equations. Newsweek, 145(20), 58-59.
Newspaper Article with No Author and Discontinuous Pages
Generic Prozac debuts. (2001, August 3). The Washington Post, pp. E1, E4.
BOOKS, CHAPTERS IN BOOKS, REPORTS, ETC.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Alexie, S. (1992). The business of fancydancing: Stories and poems. Brooklyn, NY: Hang Loose Press.
Corporate Author with an Edition and Published by the Corporate Author
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.).
Washington, DC: Author.
Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary (31st ed.). (2007). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
Chapter in a Book
Booth-LaForce, C., & Kerns, K. A. (2009). Child-parent attachment relationships, peer relationships, and peer-
group functioning. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions,
relationships, and groups (pp. 490-507). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Shyyan, V., Thurlow, M., & Liu, K. (2005). Student perceptions of instructional strategies: Voices of English
language learners with disabilities. Minneapolis, MN: National Center on Educational Outcomes, University
of Minnesota. Retrieved from the ERIC database.(ED495903)
ONLINE JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS
General Format - Databases
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Name of Journal, xx, xxx-xxx.
Article Retrieved from an Online Database
NOTE: Use the article’s DOI (Digital Object Identifier), the unique code given by the publisher to a specific article.
Senior, B., & Swailes, S. (2007). Inside management teams: Developing a teamwork survey instrument. British
Journal of Management, 18, 138-153. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2006.00507.x
NOTE: Use the journal’s home page URL (or web address) if there is no DOI. This may require a web search to locate the journal’s home page. There is no period at the end of web address. Break a long URL before the punctuation.
Koo, D. J., Chitwoode, D. D., & Sanchez, J. (2008). Violent victimization and the routine activities/lifestyle of
active drug users. Journal of Drug Issues, 38, 1105-1137. Retrieved fromhttp://www2
Article from an Online Magazine
Lodewijkx, H. F. M. (2001, May 23). Individual-group continuity in cooperation and competition under varying
communication conditions. Current Issues in Social Psychology, 6(12), 166-182. Retrieved from
OTHER ONLINE RESOURCES
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from web address
Online Report from a Nongovernmental Organization
Kenney, G. M., Cook, A., & Pelletier, J. (2009). Prospects for reducing uninsured rates among children: How
much can premium assistance programs help? Retrieved from Urban Institute website: http://
Online Report with No Author Identified and No Date
GVU's 10th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www .cc.gatech.edu/user_surveys/survey-1998-
Web Sites in Parenthetical Citations: To cite an entire Web site (but not a specific document within the site), it is sufficient to give the URL of the site in the text. No entry in the reference list is needed. Example:
Kidpsych is an excellent website for young children (http:// www.kidpsych.org).
REFERENCE CITATIONS IN TEXT– APA utilizes a system of brief referencing in the text of a paper, whether one is paraphrasing or providing a direct quotation from another author’s work. Citations in the text usually consist of the name of the author(s) and the year of publication. The page number is added when utilizing a direct quotation.
Indirect Quotation with Parenthetical Citation
Libraries historically highly value intellectual freedom and patron confidentiality (LaRue, 2007).
Indirect Quotation with Author as Part of the Narrative
LaRue (2007) identified intellectual freedom and patron confidentiality as two key values held historically by libraries.
Direct Quotation with Parenthetical Citation
Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological" (Gould & Brown, 1991, p. 14).
Direct Quotation with Author as Part of the Narrative
Gould and Brown (1991) explained that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological”(p. 14).
CITING SECONDARY SOURCES -- When citing in the text a work discussed in a secondary source, give both the primary and the secondary sources. In the example below, the study by Seidenberg and McClelland was mentioned in an article by Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller.
Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993) provided a glimpse into the world
In the references page, you would cite the secondary source you read not the original study.
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and
parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.
By David Becker
Dear APA Style Experts,
I want to cite an illustrated book and give proper credit to the illustrator, but I can’t find an example of how to do that in the Publication Manual. Can you give me some guidance?
— Edward G.
Unfortunately, the Publication Manual doesn’t have the space to accommodate examples for every type of citation situation (cite-uation?). But, even though the manual doesn't specifically mention how to cite an illustrator, the basic book reference format described on pages 202–203 still applies to your cite-uation.
The first thing to keep in mind is that the goal of a reference is not necessarily to provide proper credit—it’s more about directing your readers to the right source. These two objectives generally go hand-in-hand, but not always. For instance, if you’re citing a book that includes illustrations that aren’t essential elements of the book, crediting the illustrator is probably not necessary—this information will likely not assist readers in finding the original source.
Take Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland for example. The illustrations by Sir John Tenniel are very well-known, but the book can function perfectly fine without them, and your readers won’t need to know his name to find the source. With that in mind, here’s what the reference would look like:
Carroll, L. (2006). Alice’s adventures in Wonderland & through the looking-glass. New York, NY: Bantam Dell. (Original work published 1865)
Even if you were writing specifically about these illustrations, you would still use the same reference information, as well as the standard author–date format for parenthetical citations. You could simply refer to the illustrator and his work in your narrative: “Sir John Tenniel’s illustrations are excellent examples of surreal art from the 1800s (Carroll, 1865/2006).”
However, when citing a book where the illustrations are essential to understanding the content—a children’s picture book or a graphic novel, for example—it would be appropriate to cite both the author and the illustrator, especially if they are both given cover credit. But, you don't need to worry about their roles. Keep it simple and cite the book as you would cite a non-illustrated book with more than one author. Take Goodnight Moon for example:
Brown, M. W., & Hurd, C. (2007). Goodnight moon. New York, NY: HarperCollins. (Original work published 1947)
Although Margaret Wise Brown and Clement Hurd are clearly identified on the book's front cover as the author and the illustrator, respectively, there's no need to indicate this in your reference entry.
One benefit of sticking with this basic citation format is that you can easily apply it to books where the author and illustrator roles are not clearly designated on the cover, which is the case with the graphic novel Watchmen:
Moore, A., & Gibbons, D. (1986). Watchmen. New York, NY: DC Comics.
Note that although John Higgins is credited as the colorist inside the book, he's not named on the front cover. Therefore, it's not necessary to cite him for retrievability purposes—just cite what you see on the front cover.
This simple citation format also works for wordless picture books where there is no author, only an illustrator:
Becker, A. (2013). Journey. Somerville, MA: Candlewick Press.
If you’re trying to cite an illustrated book, I hope this information will help you resolve your cite-uation. If not, please leave a comment below or contact us.